Central nervous system comprises brain and spinal cord, and is responsible for integration of sensory information. Brain is the largest and one of the most complex organs in the human body. It is made up of 100 billion nerves that communicate with 100 trillion synapses. It is responsible for the thought and movement produced by the body. Spinal cord is connected to a section of brain known as brain stem and runs through the spinal canal. The brain processes and interprets sensory information sent from the spinal cord. Brain and spinal cord serve as the primary processing centers for the entire nervous system, and control the working of the body. Neuroprosthetics improves or replaces the function of the central nervous system.
Neuroprosthetics, also known as neural prosthetics, are devices implanted in the body that stimulate the function of an organ or organ system that has failed due to disease or injury. It is a brain-computer interface device used to detect and translate neural activity into command sequences for prostheses. Its primary aim is to restore functionality in patients suffering from loss of motor control such as spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and stroke. The major types of neuroprosthetics include sensory implants, motor prosthetics, and cognitive prosthetics. Motor prosthetics support the autonomous system and assist in the regulation or stimulation of affected motor functions.
Similarly, cognitive prosthetics restore the function of brain tissue loss in conditions such as paralysis, Parkinson’s disease, traumatic brain injury, and speech deficit. Sensory implants pass information into the body’s sensory areas such as sight or hearing, and it is further classified as auditory (cochlear implant), visual, and spinal cord stimulator. Some key functions of neuroprosthetics include providing hearing, seeing, feeling abilities, pain relief, and restoring damaged brain cells. Cochlear implant is among the most popular neuroprosthetics. In addition, auditory brain stem implant is also a neuroprosthetic meant to improve hearing damage.
North America dominates the global market for neuroprosthetics due to the rising incidence of neurological diseases and growth in geriatric population in the region. Asia is expected to display a high growth rate in the next five years in the global neuroprosthetics market, with China and India being the fastest growing markets in the Asia-Pacific region. Among the key driving forces for the neuroprosthetics market in developing countries are the large pool of patients, increasing awareness about the disease, improving healthcare infrastructure, and rising government funding in the region.
Increasing prevalence of neurological diseases such as traumatic brain injury, stroke and Parkinson’s disease, rise in geriatric population, increase in healthcare expenditure, growing awareness about healthcare, rapid progression of technology, and increasing number of initiatives by various governments and government associations are some key factors driving growth of the global neuroprosthetics market. However, factors such as high cost of devices, reimbursement issues, and adverse effects pose a major restraint to the growth of the global neuroprosthetics market.
Innovative self-charging neural implants that eliminate the need for high risk and costly surgery to replace the discharge battery and controlling machinery with thoughts would help to develop opportunities for the growth of the global neuroprosthetics market. The major companies operating in the global neuroprosthetics market are Boston Scientific Corporation, Cochlear Limited, Medtronic, Inc., Cyberonics, Inc., NDI Medical LLC, NeuroPace, Inc., Nervo Corp., Retina Implant AG, St. Jude Medical, and Sonova Group.
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