Genetic engineering is a branch of biotechnology that deals with gene modifications or changes in genetic makeup. By using prolonged tissue culture in genetic engineering, viruses can be attenuated or modified. This results in the growth of a virus strain that is incapable to cause disease. This process is generally difficult to accomplish and reversion to virulence is a constant risk. Molecular genetic methods currently make promise to alter the genes or modify the genetic makeup of an organism, so that it converts irrevocably attenuated. Intentional removal of genes with a code for proteins associated with virulence is an interesting procedure. For instance, in swine with pseudorabies virus (PRV), a herpesvirus of swine, gene-deleted vaccines were first used. In this case, the herpesvirus, thymidine kinase gene was removed from pseudorabies herpesvirus. Thymidine kinase is highly important for latency of herpesvirus. Viruses from which the thymidine kinase gene has been removed can infect neurons. However, these viruses are incapable to replicate. Also, they cannot cause any disease. Similar genetic modification can be employed to limit the capability of bacteria to grow in vivo.
For instance, an altered live vaccine that comprises streptomycin-dependent Pasteurella multocida and Mannheimia haemolytica is available. These mutants depend on the existence of streptomycin for growth. Absence of streptomycin ultimately results in death of bacteria, when these mutants used in the vaccine, but not before a defensive immune response is generated. In addition, it is feasible to modify the appearance of additional antigens so that the vaccine prompts an antibody response different from that produced by wild strains. This gives rise to a method to differentiate diseased animals from vaccinated animals (referred to as Differentiating Infected from Vaccinated Animals (DIVA) or Segregation Infected from Vaccinated Animals (SIVA)). Chances of reversion to virulence can also be reduced if two, dissimilar and specially disjointed genes are mutated or deleted. Considering all these factors, these new engineered vaccines can be considerably harmless than conventionally developed live vaccines.
These genetically engineered vaccines can also be used as marker vaccines. By deleting a vital gene, replication-incompetent vaccines can be developed. These are extremely harmless, as they cannot be discharged into the environment. Another benefit of live vaccines is that they can frequently be carried through the mucosal route, which is a natural path of infection, thereby inducing mucosal immunity with systemic immunity. By increasing mucosal immunity, development of a disease can be stopped at the beginning of infection itself. The global gene-deleted vaccines market is expanding at a significant pace, due to technological developments and emergence of new diseases. Increasing the genetic mutation by using different types of radiation and new diseases development are also augmenting the market. However, high cost of the technology and low success rate are major restraints for the gene-deleted vaccines market. Moreover, several issues surround the use of vaccines, for example, prevalence of a disease in a specific environment, government regulations, and safety. These factors are also restraining the market.
The global gene-deleted vaccines market can be segmented based on type of product, application, end-user, and geography. Based on type of product, the market has been classified into DNA vaccines, sub-unit vaccines, vector vaccines, Brucella abortus recombinant mutants, and others. Based on application, the market has been categorized into cattle, sheep, pigs, and others. Based on end-user, the market has been divided into veterinary hospitals, veterinary clinics, and animal care centers. Based on geography, the global gene-deleted vaccines market has been segregated into North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, and Rest of World.
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Major players operating in the global gene-deleted vaccines market are Protein Sciences Corporation, Virbac SA, Merck Animal Health, Merial Ltd., Zoetis Inc., Boehringer Ingelheim GmbH, Ceva, Bayer AG, Biogenesis-Bago, Indian Immunologicals Ltd., and Heska Corporation.