Schistosomiasis is an acute and chronic disease caused by the parasitic worm Schistosoma genus. Schistosomiasis is also known as Bilharzia, Blood fluke, and Katayama fever. The disease is spread through waterborne transmission. Schistosoma parasites are found in rivers, lakes, water parks, ponds, swimming pools, municipal water, and streams. Schistosomamansoni, S. haematobium, S. japonicum, S. mekongi and S. intercalatum are common parasites of schistosomiasis. Infection can spread through direct contact with the infected animal and person. Schistosomiasis transmission had been reported from 78 countries, in 2015.
Schistosomiasis symptoms occur when the body reacts to the worms’ eggs. Diarrhea, abdominal cramps, blood in the stool, vomiting, liver enlargement, blood in urine, kidney damage, fever, rash, body aches,and weakness are signs and symptoms of the disease. Other chronic symptoms include vaginal bleeding, genital lesions, and nodules in the vulva, seminal vesicles, paralysis, seizures, Healthcare professionals recommend repeated examination to confirm the schistosomiasis parasite in the stool and urine. Blood test and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests also help to diagnose schistosomiasis. If no eggs are found in urine or feces other tests such as colonoscopy, endoscopy, ultrasound, echocardiograms, MRI, and liver biopsy can be recommended for better diagnosis. If schistosomiasis is left untreated, it can lead to complications related to cardiopulmonary, central nervous system, gastrointestinal, liver, spleen, bacterial infections, urinary obstruction, and even death.
Currently, praziquantel drug is used to treat schistosomiasis and is more effective on adult worms; however, no effective medication is available in the market for eggs or immature worms. Corticosteroids are also used to treat the disease. Oxamniquine, artemisinins, metrifonate, and trioxolanes are other drugs to treat schistosomiasis, however these drugs are less effective, while a few others are under development. Surgical alternativescan include the removal of tumors, shunt surgeries, and granuloma removal. Increasing scarcity of clean water supplies in Africa, Asia, and Latin America increase the proliferation of the disease, impelling the schistosomiasis drugs market. Lack of the disease awareness is the key restraint of the market.
The schistosomiasis drugs market can be segmented based on drug class, distribution channel, end-user, and region. In terms of drug class, the market can be categorized into anthelmintic or anti-worm and others. Based on distribution channel the market is categorized into hospital pharmacy, retail pharmacy, and online sales. The hospital pharmacy segment held the largest share in the schistosomiasis drugs market. The segment is projected to expand at a significant CAGR during the forecast period. The online sales segment is expected to gain market share during the forecast period, due to the growing use of mobile-based applications for ordering medicines.
In terms of region, the global schistosomiasis drugs market can be segmented into Middle East & Africa, Latin America, Asia Pacific, Europe, and North America. Middle East & Africa is the largest market for schistosomiasis drugs, followed by Latin America, Asia, Europe, and North America. In terms of revenue, South Africa is a major contributor to the schistosomiasis drugs market in Middle East & Africa. The market in Latin America is expanding rapidly due to an increase in the patient population, especially in Brazil. However, Asia Pacific and Europe are projected to grow in the near future. Emerging economies such as China and Japan are projected to contribute to the regional growth due to better health care infrastructure, economic growth, improving insurance payers, expanding and developing private health care sector, and increasing awareness.
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Key players operating in the global schistosomiasis drugs market are Bayer AG, Merck KGaA, Pfizer, Inc., F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd., Novartis AG, Teva Pharmaceuticals Industries Ltd., and Mylan N.V.